Studying the pipe work, manhole covers and drain covers has created a great importance weighted on materiality for me. The Gridders appreciate the craftmanship and the history embedded in the casting and installing of the manhole covers and drain covers. Within plumbing different skills to make and functions of use are dictated by the material choice of the pipe work (stone, cast iron, steel, copper, PVC). The way materials are joined and connected or extended vary greatly depending on the material. I have been noting information from the book ‘Architectural Metalwork in Copper & it’s Alloys’ by A.L. McMullen (1963). Although it is not a new book, it contains a lot of infomation on how copper and it’s alloys are manufactured and manipulated in architecture. This has helped me expand how copper can be used. I have begun with researching copper as it is noted as a material used in plumbing that requires alot of joinery skill.


Understanding the colours formed with different metallics.


Understanding how a material can be manipulated through twisting, stretching, pinching etc.


The book offers many technical drawings which explain how the material is applied and connected to other elements.

McMULLEN, A.L. (1963). Architectural Metalwork in Copper & it’s Alloys. London, UK: CDA Publications.


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